Preserved Stories Blog

Fundamentals of Geobiology (2012) offers an overview of plants and animals as geobiological agents

In its opening chapter, Fundamentals of Geobiology (2012) outlines what geobiology is and describes its growth as a discipline. The chapter, which provides a valuable introduction, is authored by Andrew H. Knoll, Donald E. Canfield, and Kurt O. Konhauser, who also serve as editors of the range of overviews, by many authors, that comprise the book.

Geobiology, the editors note (p. 5), is a scientific discipline in which the principles and tools of biology are applied to studies of the Earth.

In concept, geobiology parallels geophysics and geochemistry.

Beginning in the 1940s, the editors note, scientists brought the tools of physics and chemistry to bear on studies of the Earth, transforming geology from a descriptive science to a quantitative field grounded in analysis, experiment, and modeling with a focus on on plate tec­tonics and planetary differentiation.

The Earth sciences have been primarily concerned with geochemistry and geophysics. At the periphery of the field, however, palaeontology has had an interest in applying biological thought to geology, and in advancing the argument that life has changed the planet’s environment through geological time.

Whereas most palaeontologists focused on morphology and systematics, two scientists, Vladimir Vernadsky and Lourens Baas-Becking, focused on metabolism.

According to Knoll, Canfield, and Konhauser, in their opening remarks in the text, “in the long run that [that is, that emphasis] made all the difference.”

Gaia

“Geobiological thinking moved to centre stage,” the editors add, “in the 1970s with articulation of the Gaia Hypothesis by James Lovelock (1979). Much like Vernadsky before him, Lovelock argued that life, air, water and rocks interact in complex ways within an integrated Earth system. More controversially, he posited that organisms regulate the Earth system for their own benefit. While this latter view, sometimes called ‘strong Gaia,’ has found little favor with biologists or Earth scientists, most now accept the more general view that Earth surface environments cannot be understood without input from the life sciences. The seeds of these ideas may have been planted earlier, but it was Lovelock who really captured the attention of a broad scientific community.”

Whether or not Lovelock’s “strong Gaia” view has or has not found favour among biologists and Earth scientists, I do not know. Is the statement, by the editors, based on anecdotal evidence? Or is it based on a survey? If a survey, what survey instrument was used? How large was the sample? Enough to say that Lovelock, an independent scientist, is a person whose views are of interest to many people, however popular or unpopular they may be.

Plants and animals as geobiological agents

Chapter 11 features an overview by David J. Beerling and Nicholas J. Butterfield regarding plants and animals as geobiological agents.

Animals as geobiological agents

Beerling and Butterfield introduce the topic of animals as geobiological agents with the following opening paragraph. I quote the paragraph (p. 195) in its entirety because it serves as a delightful and fascinating introduction to the topic:

“Given their enormous standing biomass and domination of most terrestrial environments, it is hardly surprising that land plants serve as powerful geobiological agents. Often less appreciated is the correspondingly large impact made by animals. The key to metazoan influence lies in their underlying physiology, which in most instances combines heterotrophy and motility with organ-grade multicellularity. By tapping into an effectively inexhaustible source of novel morphology and behaviour, motile multicellular heterotrophs have revolutionized the exchange between biosphere and geosphere over the past 600 million years (Butterfield, 2007, 2011).

[The articles referenced for Butterfield 2007 and 2011, in the chapter, are: Butterfield, NJ (2007) Macroevolution and macroecology through deep time. Palaeontology 50, 41-55 and Butterfield, NJ (2011) Animals and the invention of the Phanerozoic Earth system. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 81-87.]

[End of excerpt; in the citation above I've followed the punctuation and spelling used in the chapter references.]

Comment

I look forward to learning more about plants and animals as geobiological agents. As a first project, I will translate the above-noted paragraph into everyday language, in order to attain a better grasp of its contents.

 

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The processing capacity of the conscious mind is limited; this is a result of how the brain’s attentional system evolved

I feel most fortunate that I came across a Twitter link dealing with an Aug. 9, 2014 New York Times article that underlines the fact that the processing capacity of conscious mind is limited, as a result of how the brain’s attentional system evolved.

As I’ve noted in a previous post, the article recommends that a person limit engagement with social media and emails to a specified time during the day. I now limit my activity in these areas to the morning and evening. During the rest of the day, my email and social media platforms are switched off.

I had read previously about the fact that multitasking reduces a person’s capacity to get things dome, but had not followed up on that information. The New York Times article shared information that is similar to what we know about multitasking – and also included a specific suggestion. That suggestion is what has led to a change in my approach to social media and email. As a result, I’ve received a tangible benefit from the New York Times article. I’m getting a lot more work done, and my mind is clearer,

Measurement of social value of research

A recent Lancet editorial – which I also learned about through Twitter – is of interest with regard to the social benefit of evidence derived from research. The New York Times article about the brain’s attentional system is based on research; the information  in the article has been of tangible benefit for me.

The Lancet editorial notes that “how to measure social value in a meaningful, reproducible way across participants and cultures, with a valid collection of metrics that could be used to encourage, guide, and gauge improvements to society, is a challenge.” It adds that:

“If a robust measure could be developed, however, it would be useful not only to journals, but also to authors and institutions as an indicator of how well they contribute to society, and for funders as an outcome-based metric of efficient investment.”

Measurement of public education outcomes

The idea of measuring the social value of research is a great concept. The article brings to mind a project that I helped out with over a period of many years, which involved the development of a survey instrument that could be used to measure attitudes about stuttering, in countries around the world.

Such an instrument, which has been developed by Kenneth St. Louis and his colleagues, is highly valuable in quantifying the results of public education efforts aimed at provision of accurate information about stuttering. Such public education efforts were a particular area of interest for me, in the years when I was active in volunteer work on behalf of people who stutter.

 

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Grafton is a semi-rural town in east central Massachusetts lying southeast of the City of Worcester

I recently had an online conversation with MCHS alumnus Howard Hight, who remembers all kinds of details about Montreal in the 1950s and 1960s, including the Pizza Pan, which used to be near Orange Julep on Decarie Blvd.

Howard, who made a career in publishing, now lives in Grafton, Massachusetts.

I mentioned to him: “I hear Grafton is close to Boston, which I know is a fun place.”

Howard Hight replied:

Grafton is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.

If Washington can be fairly analogised to Rome, then it is no stretch to compare Boston to Athens.

I came here because of publishing. This is a logical center. There are over 100 universities and colleges within a 100 mile circumference of Boston.

Highest concentration in USA.

Grafton is approx 40 miles west of Boston.

You might like this link…..

History of Grafton

[End of text from Howard Hight]

The link is indeed of interest; among other things, I noted the First Nations references. The opening paragraphs read:

  • Grafton is a semi-rural town in east central Massachusetts lying southeast of the City of Worcester. The population according to the federal census in 2010 was 17,765.
  • Grafton was originally occupied by a tribe of Nipmuc Indians and was called Hassanamisco (place of small stones). In 1671, an English missionary named John Eliot, who preached in Hassanamisco, established an Indian church and school here where the Bible was studied in the Indian language. The church and school were located near the current common. Today there is an Indian homestead on Brigham Hill.
  • In 1724, a group of 39 men and one woman, mainly from Marlborough, Sudbury, Concord, and Stow, presented a petition to the General Court and were granted the right to purchase 7,500 acres of land from Indian owners. The money was to be held in an account under the direction of the General Court for the benefit of the Indians. The Town of Grafton was established in 1735 and named in honor of Charles Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, and grandson of Charles II.

 

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Do your social networking and email during a designated time, not as constant interruptions to your day

I would describe myself as dubious with regard to efforts to “explain reality” on the basis of neuroscience research.

That said, I do read accounts of potential applications of the “latest neuroscience research.”

By way of example, the concept that a person needs to “reset” one’s brain from time to time – for example, by avoiding dealing with work emails while on vacation – appeals to me strongly.

A thought has occurred to me as my mind was wandering during the writing of this post. The thought is that the voice that I adopt as a blogger is the voice that I developed as a writer when I was in high school, and which I refined in freelance work in the years that followed:

2087-8343-1-PB-2

It was in five years of freelance writing that I really learned how to write. Eventually, I became a public school teacher, because freelance writing paid little, whereas with a teaching job, you knew you had a steady income and could write as much as you liked.

The writing requirement of teaching was a part of the job that I much enjoyed, along with the organizing of role plays and dramas by elementary students, which was always a great source of entertainment for everybody.

On many days, I would remark to myself, “Live drama is the best form of entertainment; it’s a treat to have a job where I get paid to watch life drama.” Everybody enjoyed the fact I used drama in my classes – even the parents, of many of my students, remarked how much their children enjoyed taking part in role plays.

Laboratory for Music, Cognition and Expertise

With regard to how the brain works, a recent overview of neuroscience research, in an Aug. 9 New York Times article by Daniel J. Levitin entitled “Hit the reset button in your brain,” has had practical applications in determining how I go about my work.

Daniel Levitin is the director of the Laboratory for Music, Cognition and Expertise at McGill University and the author of The Organized Mind: Straight Thinking in the Age of Information Overload (2014). At the time of this writing, the book has 71 holds at the Toronto Public Library website.

Levitin’s previous books include, among others, This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of Human Obsession (2006).

CBC Radio Metro Morning

I learned about the article from a CBC Radio Metro Morning broadcast. The broadcast spoke of the drawbacks of checking your work emails while you’re on vacation.

After reading the article, I have adopted a policy of doing my online social networking and email during a designated time, rather than all through the day. In my case, I now reserve the mornings and evenings for email and social media. The rest of the day I attend to other things.

There’s much to be said for online communications, with benefits that are evident in the analog, non-digital realms available to us. It’s also a great idea to spend plenty of time in the non-digital side of everyday life.

I had read previously about research regarding the deleterious influence of multitasking on attending to the completion of a given task, but the information did not do very much to alter my behaviour. The “reset your brain” article in the New York Times has caused me to change my behaviour.

Reset you brain

Daniel Levitin notes, in his article, that our brains, as a consequence of how the brain’s “attentional system” has evolved, have two dominant “modes of attention.”

Task-positive network

The first component of the attentional system is described as the “task-positive network,” which is active when a person is actively engaged in a task. It’s at work when you’re focused on the task at hand, and are free of distractions and interruptions. Neuroscientists speak of this component as the “central executive.” In the absence of distractions, we get things done; we stick to the task at hand.

Task-negative network

The “task-negative network,” as the article explains, is active when a person’s mind is “wandering.” It’s the mode that’s activated when we daydream – and it’s associated with a person’s moments of creativity and insight.

Seesaw metaphor

The two components are called “networks” because they are comprised of distributed networks of neurons, which are described as being comparable to electric circuits in the brain. According to Levitin, the two above-mentioned networks operate like a seesaw; when one is active the other is not.

Attentional filter

A third component of the attentional system, according to Levitin’s overview, is the “attentional filter.” This component helps us to orient our attention. It helps us to know what to pay attention to, and what can be ignored.

During evolution of the human species, this component would have come in handy in the face of predators and other dangerous situations.

As it happens, the constant flow of information from social media and digital messages similarly engages the attentional filter, “and we find ourselves not sustaining attention on any one thing for very long.”

The author characterizes this constant engagement as “the curse of the information age.”

Switching is easier for some than others

Research indicates that the switch that enables us to move back and forth between daydreaming and attention is located an inch below the surface of the top of a person’s skull, in a part of the brain called the insula – described in the article as the “attentional switch.”

In some of us, as I understand, the switch works smoothly; in others it does not work so well. Whether the switch is smooth or clunky, if we’re called upon to switch too many times, we get tired and (a bit) dizzy.

The bottom line is that every digital communication that a person deals with is competing with brain resources. Important things in life – decisions we need to make, tasks we need to complete – are competing for brain resources with social media and text and email messages.

Preventable medical error is third leading cause of death in the United States

The author emphasizes that both the task-positive network and the task-negative network have a role to play in addressing the problems that the world faces.

We can say, according to Levitin, that “problem solving might take some time and doesn’t always have to be accomplished immediately.”

This idea, which he describes as radical, “could have profound effects on decision making and even on our economy. Consider this: By some estimates, preventable medical error is the third leading cause of death in the United Sates, accounting for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. You want your diagnostician to give the right answer, not always the quickest one. Zoning out is not always bad.”

Conclusion

The article concludes:

  • Taking breaks is biologically restorative. Naps are even better. In several studies, a nap of even 10 minutes improved cognitive function and vigor, and decreased sleepiness and fatigue. If we can train ourselves to take regular vacations – true vacations without work – and to set aside time for naps and contemplation, we will be in a more powerful position to start solving some of the world’s big problems. And to be happier and well rested while we’re doing it.

 

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While social conformity has many prosocial functions, it represents an opposing force to self-awareness

I had the good fortune to get to know students in the Grade 4 age range when I worked as a teacher with the Peel District School Board prior to my retirement in 2006. My retirement was marked with a special school assembly, at which I gave an eight-minute presentation that I had rehearsed endlessly. A group of students entertained the assembly with a song that they had made up, for the occasion.

I still keep in touch with elementary students as a volunteer. Each year, in recent years, I’ve made presentations to students at this age level, and have joined elementary classes on a number of enjoyable outdoor field trips.

The Mississauga school where I taught was built at a time when plenty of land was available for school sites. Thus the school has a paved area for recess and beyond that an enormous playing field where students can also play at recess.

During the years that I taught Grade 4, I learned a great deal about the lives of Grade 4 students. I also would tell my students about my own experiences at that age, which they always enjoyed hearing about. What I know, especially from the years that I was a teacher, is that having good friends to play with at recess is a central part of the life experience of a typical Grade 4 student.

Grade 4

I also learned, on rare occasions when a class decided that it would be a good idea to share with me some particular features of their lives as students, that Grade 4 children, like children at all age levels, have a life “of their own” that is separate from the lives of the teachers and other adults that they are in touch with every day. On such occasions, when they spoke candidly with me, as a class, about the things that they did not generally make a practice of sharing with teachers, I felt honoured that I had gained their trust.

On one occasion, at the end of a school year, one class staged a panel discussion, moderated by a girl who was highly adept at such tasks, specifically for my benefit. In the course of the panel discussion, which we all enjoyed, a wide range of students shared some delightful stories – about their own “classroom romances.” “Oh my,” I thought. “I would never have imagined these relationships!” I was really pleased that the class had decided, following one of my year-end lessons, that I would be a fine teacher to share the stories with. That was for me an unusual experience, one that I cherish. The panel discussion has stayed with me, long after my teaching career was over.

Everyday life of preadolescent students

With regard to the everyday life of students, the forms of social stratification that occurs in classrooms, and in a school as a whole, including at recess times, is evident to most everyone, to varying degrees, and has been widely studies by sociologists.

With regard to research about such topics, I’ve recently been re-reading a book from the Toronto Public Library entitled Peer Power: Preadolescent Culture and Identity (1998). I’m not familiar, at this point, with more recent research, published since 1998, regarding preadolescent social stratification and related topics, aside from Status Update (2013).

Chapter 10 concludes the study

I don’t know if I’ll ever find time to read the book in its entirety. However, I’ve particularly enjoyed reading Chapter 10, in my current loan period for the book. If the topics at hand interest you, I recommend this chapter, which is entitled “Bringing It All Together.”

The authors note that they chose to approach the experiences, of the children they studied, “as much as possible through the children’s own perspectives, to cast our emphases on those things that they considered important” (p. 194). The study focussed in particular on the free time that children constructed for themselves within the context of family, school, and after-school programs.

“It was,” the authors note, “within their social lives that they found the freedom to create and express themselves. This was where they forged the peer culture that set the standards against which they both evaluated the outside world and measured themselves.

“We have tried to portray children’s experiences in the ways that they saw them, adding analytical elements that grew out of their own observations and interactions. We discussed issues related to their status stratification and dynamics, to their core nonacademic activities, to the sets of relationships that comprised their lives, influencing both their identity and social position. Taken together, these elements formed the foundation of their preadolescent peer lives and culture” (p. 194).

Erving Goffman

I was delighted to note that the study makes several references to the symbolic interactionist work of Erving Goffman, whose published work and career I have followed with interest starting from the day that I first began reading The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959) as an undergraduate student at McGill University in the mid-1960s.

Although I did not realize it at the time, the McGill sociology course where I learned about Goffman, and about Goffman’s focus on a dramaturgical perspective on the stuff of everyday life, has had a strong impact on the development of my subsequent interests.

I would have long ago lost interest in Goffman’s work, were it not for the fact that even in recent years, in my reading of a wide range of contemporary studies, I’ve come across many references to his work.

I’m delighted to know that if a person does a Google search for “Erving Goffman,” on many occasions a post that I wrote some time back about him appears among the first several links. It’s my guess that undergraduate sociology students looking for information about Goffman’s career and story enjoy reading my brief account of his life.

Economic history

Another course that had a strong impact on my thinking – again, without me being aware at the time that it would be important to me in the years ahead – was a course, that I think pretty well all McGill undergraduates, or at least Arts majors, were required to take at the time, dealing with economic history.

It was taught by a Professor Wright. The idea behind the course, as I recall, was that it would be useful for McGill students to have a foundation in economic history, as a way of orienting themselves to the world of ideas. I did not graduate from McGill. Instead I transferred to Simon Fraser University, where I completed my degree.

While social conformity has many prosocial functions, it represents an opposing force to self-awareness

The title for this blog post is from a discussion on p. 210 of Chapter 10 of the study, under the subheading of “Peer Group Dynamics.”

In closing, I’m pleased to share with you the following blurb, from the Toronto Public Library website, regarding Peer Power: Preadolescent Culture and Identity (1998).

If you know of a more recent sociological study addressing the same themes, please let me know.

The blurb from the Toronto Public Library reads:

  • Peer Power seeks to explode existing myths about children’s friendships, power and popularity, and the gender chasm between elementary school boys and girls. Based on eight years of intensive insider participant observation in their own children’s community, Peter and Patti Adler discuss the vital components of the lives of preadolescents, popularity, friendships, cliques, social status, social isolation, loyalty, bullying, boy-girl relationships, and after-school activities. They describe how friendships shift and change, how people are drawn into groups and excluded from them, how clique leaders maintain their power and popularity, and how individuals’ social experiences and feelings about themselves differ from the top of the pecking order to the bottom. In so doing, the Adlers focus their attention on the peer culture of the children themselves and the way this culture extracts and modifies elements from adult culture.

[End of blurb]

A brief review of the book is also available at the Toronto Public Library website

The link at which the above-noted blurb appears also includes a brief review of the book. The review is also well worth reading, as it concisely outlines the scope and value of the study.

Another book that I like, regarding the themes addressed in Peer Power (1998), is Odd Girl Speaks Out (2004).

 

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What element does a person miss in Montreal that no longer exists?

For people who have memories of Montreal, whether they still live in Montreal or not (I’m in the latter category), you can find a great overview on Facebook concerned with things that people fondly recollect from times past in Montreal.

You can access the Facebook group by clicking here.

I like the fact it’s a moderated group.

A recent comment (I’ve edited the punctuation): “After about a couple of weeks, most names are being repeated as most do not look back. I am sure there are still hundreds that have not been mentioned. What about the places we miss from up north in around the Ste. Agathe area.”

Update

In a recent Facebook message, Howard Hight commented: “Pizza pan..used to be near Orange Julipp on decarie blvd.”

 

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Jane’s Walk in Toronto: August 17 and 31, 2014 Sunday morning urban activity and exploration!

The following message is from Denise Pinto of Jane’s Walk:

Open the streets to people and close them to cars? Yes!

Select Jane’s Walks tours will be running during the Open Streets TO 2014 Pilot Program – Sunday, August 17th and 31st – 8:00 am to noon

This year, we’ve paired up with Open Streets TO to bring Toronto even more Jane’s Walks! Around the corner is Open Streets, and event that closes the street to cars and opens it to people, inviting Torontonians to explore their city in fun and healthy ways.

The event is taking place on two Sunday mornings along Bloor from Spadina to Parliament, and along Yonge from Bloor to Queen. (Check out OpenstreetsTO.org for more details.) During the event, these roads will be closed to vehicle traffic and open to, well, everything else!

Wanting to take advantage of all this untapped room for urban exploration, we’ve asked some nearby Jane’s Walkers if they’d host a repeat tour. Here’s a taste of the great walks that are back!

Click [on the links] below to see the dates each tour is running. Some are only on one of the days, some run both days. Here’s to ending the summer partying in the streets!

Sidewalk Audit

Walk Toronto Sidewalk Audit imagines how much better our sidewalks could be if they were designed as lanes for pedestrian traffic!

Cultural, University, and Discovery District

Exploring the Cultural, University, and Discovery District tours us through an area where old and new collide.

Dundas Street

Against the Grid meanders and questions the curious curve of Dundas Street.

Graffiti

Graffiti in Toronto asks walkers to consider how they feel about graffiti and its place in our city.

[End of message from Jane's Walk. Please note that, in alignment with my site's usage policy, I've added a serial comma in "Cultural, University, and Discovery District." The original text does not include the comma.]

Comment

Jane’s Walk is a great concept. It’s a great way to meet fellow residents, and to learn – through walking conversations in local neighbourhoods – about local history and the issues that confront us in the present moment.

Mike James and Jaan Pill have been leading Jane’s Walks in south Etobicoke for three years. We’re looking forward to our next round of Jane’s Walks in 2015! For a change of pace, one of our 2015 walks will focus on the history of New Toronto, the community where Mike James grew up.

 

 

 

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Operation War Diary is taking British Army regimental records and transcribing them. You can help.

The website, which I learned about from David Juliusson, for Operation War Diary: Reports from the Front can be found here.

The site notes:

“The story of the British Army on the Western Front during the First World War is waiting to be discovered in 1.5 million pages of unit war diaries. We need your help to reveal the stories of those who fought in the global conflict that shaped the world we live in today.”

The site adds: “Become a Citizen Historian and help Imperial War Museums and The National Archives reveal the story of the British Army on the Western Front during the First World War.”

David Juliusson notes: “What the project is doing is taking regimental records and transcribing them. It sounds like an interesting project.”

If you’d like to volunteer, the site has information about how to arrange to help out.

 

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The Importance of an Occupation after Retirement!

“Harold is my new inspiration,” Howard Hight reports.

Howard, a graduate of Malcolm Campbell High School in Montreal who now lives in the USA, has shared with us the following message, circulating as an email, which he has affirmed is fine for me to post:

The Importance of an Occupation after Retirement!

As we get older we sometimes begin to doubt our ability to “make a difference” in the world. It is at these times that our hopes are boosted by the remarkable achievements of other “seniors” who have found the courage to take on challenges that would make many of us wither.

Harold Schlumberg is such a person:

THIS IS QUOTED FROM HAROLD:

“I’ve often been asked, ‘What do you do now that you’re retired?’

“Well…I’m fortunate to have a chemical engineering background and one of the things I enjoy most is converting scotch, wine and whiskey into urine. It’s rewarding, uplifting, satisfying and fulfilling. I do it every day and I really enjoy it.”

Harold is an inspiration to us all.

[End of text from Howard Hight] 

Comment

The CBC Archives has a great overview of the history of “Canada’s changing relationship with the bottle.” An earlier post about red wine and health can be accessed here.

 

Posted in Malcolm Campbell High School, Newsletter, Toronto | 2 Comments

Etobicoke-South Cycling Committee meeting: Aug. 12, 2014 at 7:00 pm at “Among Friends,” 2970 Lake Shore Blvd. West

Following message is from Lakeshore Planning Council:

In partnership with the Lakeshore Planning Council and Cycle Toronto,

the Etobicoke-South Cycling Committee will be holding a meeting on:

DATE: August 12 from 7 to 9 PM.

LOCATION: “Among Friends”, 2970 Lake Shore Blvd W, Etobicoke, ON M8V 1J7 (MAP)

Agenda

1. Etobicoke Creek Trail. The TRCA and the Ministry of Transportation have been meeting about the trail. The new date for trail completion is late summer, early fall. A discussion on what is happening. Is there anything new?

2. Culture Days will be held on September 26, 27 and 28 (Fri, Sat, Sun) in New Toronto. We will be offering bike rides of the community as part of the celebrations. What routes should we take? Finish planning how the days will work.

3. We wish to begin a memorial in honour of Jim Carr. All proceeds will be used to purchase a bike rack for John English School in his name. Donations for $10, $20, and $40 can be made online at lakeshoreplanningcouncil.com. We have collected $325 and need around $775 for the bike rack and memorial plaque.

4. We will have a memorial ride to John English School in September 2014 to dedicate the new bike rack. Final planning details will be worked out.

5. There has been a serious bicycle accident at Parklawn and LSBW, where a cyclist tried to turn into the westbound bicycle lane from the Martin Goodman Trail and was struck by a cab turning right from Parklawn Rd. Need to discuss any changes to make the intersection safe for cyclists.

This meeting is open to anyone interested in cycling or issues in Wards 5 and 6.

[End of text]

Jim Carr

I have contributed to the fund for the bike rack at John English Junior Middle School in memory of Jim Carr.

I urge you to contribute as well.

It’s for a good cause, in memory of a good man. I think about him often, especially when I’m out cycling in my neighbourhood, especially along the Waterfront Trail along Lake Ontario at the Mississauga-Toronto border. He brought so much enthusiasm in promotion of cycling in our communities. His legacy live on.

For details on how to donate to the legacy fund, please click here.

 

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