Mindfulness meditation

I’ve been practising mindfulness meditation since 2004 when I took an MBSR course (see below) in Toronto to deal with urgent stress-related issues related to my work.

I had a good instructor and have been applying what I learned. The stress-related issues that were the original reason that I learned mindfulness meditation are no longer an overwhelming source of concern.

In the first few years after taking the course and embarking upon a meditation practice, I read extensively about Tibetan Buddhism and other Buddhisms. In subsequent years, I’ve read academic studies about the relationship between Buddhisms and violence.

In recent years I’ve also followed up on my interest in local history and for that reason have been reading about military history.

Part of what I’ve been learning about the latter topic is outlined at this post:

Buddhist Warfare (2010) highlights connections between Buddhisms and violence

Buddhisms and extremely violent societies

With regard to the frequently documented relationship between religion and violence, the concept of “extremely violent societies” may be of relevance:

Christian Gerlach’s 2010 genocide-related study focuses on extremely violent societies

Killing, or engaging in structural violence in the name of religion, ideology, or some specified “way of seeing” is standard practice in extremely violent societies, now and in the past.

Competition for scarce resources is a key underlying narrative with regard to large-scale killing on behalf of one’s group, community, or society. In this context, an August 17, 2015 Guardian article comes to mind:

Mass grave reveals prehistoric warfare in ancient European farming community

A useful resource that provides a sense of what Buddhist warfare, in particular, can entail is a July 2, 2014 Foreign Policy article entitled:

When Buddhist Monks Wield Kalashnikovs: In Burma, an ultranationalist Buddhist militia is training to ‘defend the fatherland’ against Rohingya Muslims

Such an article describes, in a vivid way, a topic that otherwise is approached in a manner that is dry and abstract, and lacks a resonance with day-to-day realities in countries such as Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and China.

An online essay that I’ve found useful, with regard to topics discussed in Buddhist Warfare (2010), is entitled: “The Rise of Buddhism in Politics and War.” Although the spelling anomalies in the text are distracting and impede the message, the essay (see link in previous sentence) is evocative.


The above-noted essay speaks of the strong appeal of religion in dealing with stress. An August 15, 2015 Toronto Star article comes to mind with regard to this topic:

Want to be happy for life? Get religion, study suggests: Joining a church helps keep depression at bay, especially late in life, European researchers discover

The underlying message is that people will find it helpful if they have something, such as a religion, to believe in.

Details about the study are available at the London School of Economics website. A previous post related to volunteer work – which according to the above-mentioned research report is less conducive of happiness than religion – is entitled:

Volunteer work is good for us

What the Buddha Taught (1974)

What the Buddha Taught (1974) was among the texts that I read after completing an MBSR course in 2004. Further reading about Buddhism in Sri Lanka, in Buddhist Warfare (2010) and elsewhere, has enabled me to note that things are not always as they seem.

The latter study, originally published in 1959, asserts (p. 5) that there is nothing in the history of Buddhism that links it with violence in any form. The statement contradicts the available evidence, including as it relates to Walpola Rahula’s own involvement with conflicts in Sri Lanka. A good overview of the latter author’s influence on warfare in Sri Lanka is provided by a paper entitled:

Politics of Sinhala Saṅgha: Venerable Walpola Rāhula

A January 2, 2015 New York Times article, which provides some context related to the above-noted paper, is entitled:

Sri Lanka’s Violent Buddhists

By way of an update regarding the larger picture, an August 18, 2015 Guardian article is entitled:

Sri Lanka prime minister declares victory after partial election results


Of related interest is a May 29, 2014 East Asia Forum article entitled:

Finding a future for minorities in Bhutan’s emerging democracy

Also of interest: Buddhist Fury: Religion and Violence in Southern Thailand (2011)

Buddhist Warfare (2010), referred to above, serves to place into context the topics highlighted at the above-noted links.

“Compassionate killing”

A noteworthy topic that I’ve occasionally encountered concerns the role of sophistry in explaining the emergence of concepts such as “compassionate killing.” A definition of sophistry at Dictionary.com reads:

Sophistry: noun, plural sophistries.

1. a subtle, tricky, superficially plausible, but generally fallacious method of reasoning.
2. a false argument; sophism.

[End of text]

A point that is made in Buddhist Warfare (2010) is that in some cases, sophistry is not an adequate explanation for the promotion of a concept such as “compassionate killing.” An alternative explanation, that is, is that the concept may follow naturally from inherent doctrinal principles of a given religion.


An October 15, 2014 post at the Scientific American website refers to an article in Volume 311, Issue 5, entitled: “Neuroscience Reveals the Secrets of Meditation’s Benefits: Contemplative practices that extend back thousands of years show a multitude of benefits for both body and mind.” I made a point of buying the print version of Scientific American, that features the article, so that I could read it in full. The article is of interest.

The quality of the research methodology is a key consideration when assessing research about mindfulness. With regard to research, a January 8, 2015 Harvard Business Review article is entitled:

Mindfulness Can Literally Change Your Brain

An overview posted at the Harvard University website is entitled:

Where can I find evidence-based research on mindfulness?

A May 1, 2014 Scientific American article is entitled:

Is Meditation Overrated? The scientific evidence is scant for many of the practice’s widely touted benefits

The Buddha Pill (2015)

A June 12, 2015 CBC article is entitled: “Can mindfulness meditation have negative side effects?”

The above-noted article mentions a recent study entitled: The Buddha Pill (2015).

A blurb at the Toronto Public Library website (I’ve broken the text into shorter paragraphs) notes:

“Millions of people meditate daily. Many believe it affects how we feel and behave. But can we actually change through meditation? Does it work like a pill to alleviate stress? Can it put us on the path to personal transformation?

“Psychologists Dr. Miguel Farias and Catherine Wikholm explore the human ambition for personal change and its possible illusions, with a focus on yoga and meditation. They examine the psychological and biological evidence, from early research on Transcendental Meditation to recent brain-imaging studies on mindfulness. They also include personal accounts from practitioners, as well as recounting their own experiences of testing the effects of meditation and yoga on incarcerated criminals.

“This isn’t simply another book about the route to enlightenment and happiness, nor is it a ‘how to.’ Farias and Wikholm challenge assumptions about the uses and effects of meditation and yoga.

“Controversially, The Buddha Pill argues that personal change effected by these spiritual practices can vary widely from one individual to another, and that peace and compassion may not always be the end result. Combining insights from decades of scientific research with fascinating accounts from gurus and prisoners, The Buddha Pill weaves together a unique story about the science and the delusions of personal change.”

[End of text]


It’s not clear how controversial the assertion that is referred to, in the blurb, actually is.

The copy of The Buddha Pill (2015) that I’ve borrowed from the Toronto Public Library has an interesting DIY quality, by way of typography and graphic design. The body text is not easy to read; a better choice of font would make for a better reading experience. The white lettering on a coloured ground, on the back cover, is also difficult to read. In the latter case, wider spacing and a change in font and/or font size would ensure a sufficiently strong contrast between the text and background. Under those conditions, the text on the back cover would be readily readable. As well, the text would benefit from further development; it has qualities characteristic of an early draft of an essay. Over all, greater attention to the reading experience of the end user would improve the production value of the book.

These technical points aside, The Buddha Pill (2015) is a useful addition to ongoing conversations regarding the topics at hand.

Previous posts

Previous posts addressing themes of relevance to the current post include:

Feelings are contagious; they spread from person to person

Ethnographic and neuroscience research addresses Buddhist cultural practices

William Davies (2015) speaks of a happiness industry

Our brain is not a unitary organ

Japan: A Concise History (2015) critiques narratives related to humanity’s impact upon the environment

Teaching of mindfulness in schools

One of my volunteer projects has involved publicizing the work of Roy Hintsa, who for some years has been teaching mindfulness meditation to Ontario high school students, thereby helping them to deal with test anxiety and similar concerns. Some time back (February 2014) I heard from Roy Hintsa that the work he began in this area is now being done by Everyday Mindfulness, whose website is at www.mindfulnesseveryday.com

A key feature of Roy Hintsa’s work is that he’s been following an evidence-based approach to the effective teaching of mindfulness meditation in public school settings.

Lucinda Sykes introduced me to the practice of mindfulness meditation in 2004 when I was teaching elementary school at the Peel District School Board.

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

I enrolled in an eight-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course that I found beneficial in dealing with the stress responses I was experiencing in my work as a teacher. Had I not been experiencing stress in my job, it’s unlikely I would have gotten around to learning how to mediate.

Learning to meditate, and teaching of role play and drama, are among the things I remember the best from my previous career as a teacher.

Mindfulness meditation, in my experience, is easy to practice as part of a secular lifestyle.


An increasing number of methodologically sound research studies have been published in recent years in peer-reviewed professional journals regarding the benefits of regular meditation.

For example, the enhanced emotional control provided by meditation may give a person a measure of protection against secondhand stress.

My own anecdotal experience is as follows.

In 2004, I enrolled in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course in Toronto. There was a class one evening per week, and an hour of practice per day. Certain situations, in my work as a teacher, used to be a source of strong stress-related responses for me. In the months and years that followed the above-mentioned course, I’ve been meditating regularly every day.

Over that time since 2004, the stress-related responses have been reduced significantly. The kinds of stress I was experiencing several times a day now occur once or twice every several months. The intervals between such responses have been growing progressively longer over the years.

The experience of stress has been a great way for me to learn how to meditate. I would not have learned this skill had I not been in a line of work that can be stressful.

The above-mentioned courses of instruction in mindfulness are based on the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn of the University of Massachusetts Medical School.


An article by Daphne M. Davis and Jeffrey A. Hayes of Pennsylvania State University, entitled “What are the Benefits of Mindfulness? A Practice Review of Psychotherapy-Related Research,” originally published in 2011, can be accessed here.

A May 12, 2014 New York Times article is entitled: “Exercising the Mind to Treat Attention Deficits.”

An excerpt from the article notes:

  • Such quotidian decisions test a mental ability called cognitive control, the capacity to maintain focus on an important choice while ignoring other impulses. Poor planning, wandering attention and trouble inhibiting impulses all signify lapses in cognitive control. Now a growing stream of research suggests that strengthening this mental muscle, usually with exercises in so-called mindfulness, may help children and adults cope with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its adult equivalent, attention deficit disorder.
  • The studies come amid growing disenchantment with the first-line treatment for these conditions: drugs.
  • In 2007, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, published a study finding that the incidence of A.D.H.D. among teenagers in Finland, along with difficulties in cognitive functioning and related emotional disorders like depression, were virtually identical to rates among teenagers in the United States. The real difference? Most adolescents with A.D.H.D. in the United States were taking medication; most in Finland were not.


The capacity to make more effective use of one’s central nervous system as a result of ongoing meditative practices appears to be an outcome of evolutionary biology.

It may be tempting to associate mindfulness meditation with spirituality and for some of us such a connection is a given, but I do not see the association as an inevitability.

If a person wishes to speak about spirituality, it may be useful to begin by defining what the term means. Such a definition would need to distinguish between the brand and the back story. Popular literature about topics such as mindfulness tends to focus on the brand; academic literature tends to focus on the back story. Our brains (given how our brain are wired, as the research available to date indicates) tend to be entranced by the brand, even if the back story (which is typically based on some form or reliable, corroborated evidence) contradicts the brand.

If we encounter discussions about compassion, it’s useful to understand how the term is defined, in a particular discourse. The term, like spirituality, can mean different things to different people, and may depend upon particular circumstances, or situations. By way of example, being compassionate, as I understand the concept, does not mean relinquishing the right to defend one’s self.

With regard to these topics, as they relate to mindfulness, a November 1, 2013 New York Times article highlights relevant issues:

Mindfulness: Getting Its Share of Attention

The posting of the above-noted link is not meant to imply a blanket endorsement of the content of the article. For example, how did mindfulness get introduced to the west? The explanation offered in the article demonstrates a lack of awareness of cultural history, and a characteristic lack of diligence in fact-checking, on the part of the New York Times.


My belief system, in the event you want to know, is based upon evidence and evidence-based practice.

I came across the value of evidence, and the concept of evidence-based practice, at a relatively late stage of my life. Closely following the evidence takes a little more time and effort, and involves a little more uncertainty, than the certainty with which a person is otherwise blessed. If it’s certainty that you want, then you will depend upon your subjective impressions of things and the facts and evidence will not be a great source of concern for you. For details, check out the link, to a September 2015 Harvard Business Review article, in the previous sentence. The article is entitled: “How Certainty Transforms Persuasion.” The opening paragraph reads:

  • Certainty profoundly shapes our behavior. The more certain we are of a belief—regardless of its objective correctness—the more durable it will be and the greater its influence on what we do. Across dozens of studies spanning more than two decades, consumer and social psychologists have shown that people who are certain of their beliefs are more likely to buy, buy sooner, and spend more. They’re more likely to sign petitions and to vote. They’re more willing to express their opinions, endorse products, advocate for causes, and try to persuade others to adopt their views. They’re better able to withstand attacks on their own beliefs and more inclined to challenge opponents.

[End of except]

The above-noted article also refers to situations where you can go about persuading with uncertainty.

“People can be better persuaded,” the article notes, “by ads, recommendations, and even résumés that emphasize uncertain but exciting potential rather than impressive and certain accomplishments. The uncertainty piques subjects’ interest, causing them to read more carefully and ascribe great value to uncertain future impacts.”

The article also lists the research, covering “more than 20 years of research in the field of consumer and behavioral psychology,” on which the overview about certainty is presented:

“Consumer Conviction and Commitment: An Appraisal-Based Framework for Attitude Certainty”
Derek D. Rucker, Zakary L. Tormala, Richard E. Petty, and Pablo Briñol
Journal of Consumer Psychology, January 2014

“Unpacking Attitude Certainty: Attitude Clarity and Attitude Correctness”
John V. Petrocelli, Zakary L. Tormala, and Derek D. Rucker
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, January 2007

“What Doesn’t Kill Me Makes Me Stronger: The Effects of Resisting Persuasion on Attitude Certainty”
Zakary L. Tormala and Richard E. Petty
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, December 2002


A Nov. 6, 2015 Guardian article is entitled: “Religious children are meaner than their secular counterparts, study finds: Religious belief appears to have negative influence on children’s altruism and judgments of others’ actions even as parents see them as ‘more empathetic.’ ”


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