According to Narrative theory: Core concepts and debates (2012), “Narrative is somebody telling somebody else, on some occasion, and for some purposes, that something happened to someone or something” (p. 3).
The book offers a categorization (p. 60) of four ways to conceptualize beginnings, middles, and endings.
For beginnings, the categories outlined on page 60 are:
For middles the corresponding categories are (in sequence):
For endings you have:
I like the above-noted conceptualizations.
As well, as Sid Olvet has pointed out to me in an email message, referring to crows and bees – and as a June 21, 2013 CBC article attests – animals and birds also tell stories.
The CBC article cited in the previous paragraphs notes that in one 10th of a second, a prairie dog can say: “Tall thin human wearing blue shirt walking slowly across the colony.”